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ASTM A516 PVQ steel for pressure vessel tank

ASTM A516 PVQ steel for pressure vessel tank

ASTM A516 steel is a low-to-medium carbon steel pressure vessel quality (PVQ) steel. It has high strength relative to weight, high ductility and high machinability. It is available in four grades of varying strength: 55, 60, 65 and 70.
ASTM A516 PVQ steel chemical composition(%, by mass)
To increase strength while keeping carbon levels low, other elements are added to harden and strengthen, such as manganese, phosphorus, sulfur and silicon. Each grade has varying levels of each element, which are detailed in the chart below.


ASTM A516

Grade 55

Grade 60

Grade 65

Grade 70

Carbon

0.18-0.26%

0.21-0.27%

0.24-0.29%

0.27-0.31%

Manganese

0.60-1.20%

0.60-1.20%

0.85-1.20%

0.85-1.20%

Phosphorus

0.025%

0.025%

0.025%

0.025%

Sulfur

0.025%

0.025%

0.025%

0.025%

Silicon

0.15-0.40%

0.025%

0.025%

0.15-0.40%

ASTM A516 PVQ steel mechanical properties
Below is a chart detailing the yield point, tensile strength and elongation of each grade of A516.


ASTM A516

A516 Grade 55

A516 Grade 60

A516 Grade 65

A516 Grade 70

Yield (Ksi)

30

32

35

38

Tensile (Ksi)

55-75

60-80

65-85

70-90

Elongation (200 Mm)

23

21

19

17

Compared to other grades, A516 steel is a highly machinable PVQ steel grade, making it ideal to produce welded vessels where materials are manipulated to form the curved shape of a storage tank or boiler.

Heat Treatment
ASTM A516 PVQ steel plates can be supplied in two conditions:
As-rolled: the plate is supplied without heat treatment. As-rolled plate is typically not as strong as heat-treated plate because heat treatment alters the grain structure of steel plate, increasing strength, hardness and ductility.
Normalized: the plate receives a heat treatment in which plate is heated to an extremely high temperature and held at that temperature for a sufficient time (typically up to an hour minimum for every 1” of thickness). After holding this high temperature, the plate is then cooled to room temperature. Normalizing a plate increases its hardness.

ASTM A516 grades 55, 60, 65, 70 have a relatively high yield and tensile strength, allowing the steel to endure high levels of stress, energy and weight without breaking or changing shape. Yield and tensile strength are important in PVQ steel to ensure the vessel does not break or deform, risking the leakage of materials inside the vessel.

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